So, make sure of following points of concern while selecting a pond for Tilapia Fish culture. So, to bring down the pH to the desired value, lime is used. Since a preferred pH of pond directly states a better production. However, for commercial production, it is always a better idea to go for a soil test, at least once.
It helps the producer to learn the pH of the soil, and the amount of lime should be used to correct the pH. A new pond should be filled with water, only after liming it. So, Please, apply as much as lime as required on the basis of the following table to bring the pH value at the desired value for the better fish production. To select a suitable farming method in Tilapia farming is the most important thing to attain good profit and income. Tilapia fishes are farmed under nursing pond management and stocking pond management.
Pond water should be emptied in order to make it dry. Arrange fence with a net around the pond area in order to close the entrance for frogs, snakes, and other natural predators to avoid any kind of fish loss.
Usually, one can easily stock about 1. Fishes should be raised in this system for about 7 to 9 weeks. Thereafter, they should be transferred to the main stocking pond. In general, it starts growing within a week of fertilizing the fish pond.
And, from this stage, farmers can start their selling to the local market. Farmers should harvest the fishes on the basis of market requirement. Tilapia fishes are an omnivorous fish species. And, generally, they consume everything including planktons, algae, and various types of aquatic plants. For large scale commercial Tilapia farming, farmers can buy the commercial fish feed from a nearby market.
A Guide to Grow Tilapia Fish for Starting a Small Scale Business [A-Z]
One can also produce natural fish feed or organic fish feed with the help of above method. Since it is healthy and effective for the fish and it provides the highest growth to the fishes. The breeding process of Tilapia is a very simple, and it is not so difficult as compared to others. So, it is a big problem in commercial fish farming, since male tilapia grow faster than compared to the female ones.
So, modern commercial tilapia producers make uses of hormones or genetically chosen fishes in order to produce only male tilapia, leaving the females for profitable farming. Tilapia production is not a difficult task. However, care of some point of concern should be taken in order to reduce any loss in this business farming. So, to obtain desirable production of tilapia fishes,. Take care of following points in fish feeding management in tilapia fish farming.
In a very short time period, about 6 months, tilapia fishes reach their market age.
The growth rate of fishes depends on the food and environment provided to the fish. Depending on the market, decide how much fish is to be harvest from the pond. There are two popular ways or method for harvesting fish in commercially tilapia farming. Normally, harvesting fishes in the morning and afternoon are considered as the best time for harvesting fishes.
Pond routine management 1. The method of application is similar to basal fertilization, chicken manure is applied by broadcast method all over the pond bottom and is applied by hanging or platform method. The above rate may be increased or reduced depending on the natural productivity of the pond. The greenish coloring of the water indicates the presence of natural food and fertility of water in the pond. Weed control Growth of higher aquatic weeds in ponds affects the photosynthetic activity, thereby, reducing production.
It also hampers harvesting. Heavy fertilization during pond preparation discouraged the growth of aquatic weeds. Manual removal of weeds as they appear will minimize weed problem. Some fishpond operators are using grass carps to control weeds. Water quality monitoring Maintaining of water quality through daily monitoring is important especially in intensive culture.
The heavy fertilization and intensive feeding at high stocking density may produce an aerobic pond condition particularly at nighttime resulting to poor water quality. Although tilapia may survive under poor water quality, growth will be affected. Therefore, water quality should be suitable and favorable for fish life and growth. Water freshening should be made if problems are suspected to exist. Lack of oxygen would result in poor growth, outbreak of disease or mortality.
Most warm water species would need dissolved oxygen in a level of about 3 PPM above. The pH has the following effects on fish; pH range Effects 4 and below Fish die because water is acidic 4 to 5 No reproduction 5 to 6.
The optimum temperature favorable for growth of tilapia is oC. Among the important data to be recorded are: daily pond activities, operating cost which include pond inputs, quantity and cost fertilizer, fingerlings, pesticides, etc. Causes of failure and success can be traced from the records e. Harvesting Harvesting of stocks is usually done after three to four months culture period. However, other operators depend their harvesting on the size of fish that depends also in the size preference of the target market.
Others hold their harvesting if the prevailing market price is low. Selective harvesting - is the traditional way of harvesting tilapia. It is usually done in undrainable ponds using a gill net, cast net and seine net. The gear and mesh of the net is selective, such that the smaller fish passes through and retained in the pond.
In this particular situation, stocking can be done only once and after four months, selective harvesting started. Repeated harvesting every two to three weeks can be made. Total harvesting - in drainable ponds, total harvesting of fish stocks after three to four months is done.here
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Ponds are totally drained and fish are confined in the catch basin where the fish are caught by seine net. Fish left in some parts of the pond are picked up manually. In some cases, ponds are partially seined first before total draining such that total harvesting by draining is easier. Semi-intensive a. Pond preparation same with extensive method b.
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Pond routine management same as extensive method 1. Weed control 3. Water quality monitoring 3. Dissolved oxygen 3. Temperature 3. Record keeping e. Harvesting same as extensive method V. Related Papers. By eduardo rupinta. Tilapia fish farming in Pacific Island countries. Volume 2. Tilapia grow-out in ponds. By petrus sutanto. By Aloyce Kaliba. By Nancy Gitonga. Download pdf.